The cleanest way to maintain connect / express middlewares in Node.js

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I want to share how I maintain my connect / express middlewares for simple HTTP APIs in Node.js

The code snippets below are taken from api source code.

Defining the middlewares

Below you can see a simple file containing all middlewares, exported as an array.

In this example the middlewares in use are:

  • cookie-parser to parse cookies e.g. for sessions
  • body-parser to handle JSON bodies
  • cors to mitigate CORS-related headaches
  • morgan for logging

the order of connect middlewares is important, as it can be seen as a pipeline of handlers, executed one by one.

this is why the handling of CORS requests must happen before parsing cookies or the request body for instance.

const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser')
const bodyParser = require('body-parser')
const cors = require('cors')
const morgan = require('morgan')

module.exports = [
morgan(':status\t :method\t :response-time ms\t :date[clf]\t :url\t\t'),
origin: true,
methods: ['HEAD', 'GET', 'POST', 'PUT', 'PATCH', 'DELETE'],
allowedHeaders: ['x-now-id', 'x-now-trace', 'x-powered-by', 'Origin', 'Accept', 'Content-Type', 'Set-Cookie'],
credentials: true
bodyParser.urlencoded({ extended: true })

you can call this file middlewares.js to follow along with the code

Using the middlewares

In the following code snippet you can see an example usage of the middlewares, in a bare-bone connect / express application in Node.js

const app = require('express')()
const middlewares = require('./middlewares')
app.use(...middlewares)'/hello', (req, res) => res.json(`hello ${}`))
app.listen(process.env.HTTP_PORT || 3000)
console.log('listening on http://localhost:3000')

and run

node index.js

Making a request

Once the server is listening on port 3000, you can run the following and see the middlewares in action with curl!

You will get an output similar to this one:

> curl -vv -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' http://localhost:3000/hello --data '{"name": "chris"}'

< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< X-Powered-By: Express
< Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true
< Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8
< Content-Length: 13
< Vary: Origin
< ETag: W/"d-WPAgGvBxJ3QraEI06EWKezzLidE"
< Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 22:36:18 GMT
< Connection: keep-alive

"hello chris"*

Notice the headers Access-Control-Allow-Credentials?

That’s for example where the CORS middleware comes in, that is currently configured to allow credentials for CORS requests.

As you can see in middlewares.js:

origin: true,
methods: ['HEAD', 'GET', 'POST', 'PUT', 'PATCH', 'DELETE'],
allowedHeaders: ['x-now-id', 'x-now-trace', 'x-powered-by', 'Origin', 'Accept', 'Content-Type', 'Set-Cookie'],
credentials: true

Let me know on Twitter if you have questions or found better ways to handle middlewares!